Occupying 71% of the planet’s surface with an average depth of 3,710 meters and a total water mass of 1.37 billion km3, the ocean and the ocean are capable of providing a tremendous resource for humanity.
In particular, marine life is the most important resource, including hundreds of thousands of animal, plant and micro-organisms such as fish, shrimp, crab, squid … for food; sharks, leopards, sea bears … provide meat, fat, leather and fur for industry; algae and algae, which are the raw materials for the food industry and the chemical industry. The statistics show that ocean and oceanic fish production worldwide has been increasing steadily. In 1960: 22 million tons, 1970: 40 million tons, 1980: 65 million tons, 1990: 80 million tons, 2000: 94 million tons, this figure remained around 80 million tons in the near years. here. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the maximum catch from the sea is 100 million tons.
In addition to marine life, the sea and the ocean are also sources of chemicals and minerals with large reserves. Total salt in the seawater is 48 million km3, including salt, iodine and 60 other chemical elements. Minerals exploited mainly from the sea such as oil and gas, Fe, Mn ores, mineral ores and salts. Clean energy from the ocean and oceans, such as tidal energy (green coal), wave energy, is currently being exploited for shipping, generators and other human benefits.
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The sea and islands are also places of great potential for tourism development, sightseeing, rest, entertainment … The sand is large, long; Beautiful landscapes create favorable conditions for the construction of resorts and resorts.
In addition, the oceans and oceans play an important role in shortening the distance and travel time for regions and countries in the world through the development of waterways. At present, shipping has become a modern transportation industry in the international transportation system.
Vietnam is a country located along the South China Sea with a sea index six times higher than the global average. Specifically, Vietnam has a 3,260 km coastline from north to south, occupying about 100 km2 of land / 1 km of coastline (the world average of 600 km2 land / 1 km coastline); More than 3,000 islands, including Hoang Sa, Truong Sa archipelago; The continental shelf and continental shelf are under the sovereignty, sovereignty and territorial jurisdiction of over 1 million square kilometers (3 times the land area).
There are 28 provinces and cities in coastal areas, accounting for 42% of land area and 45% of the national population. With these characteristics, Vietnam is considered a country with great advantages and great potential for marine resources.
About marine resources and biodiversity: In the waters of Vietnam, around 11,000 species of organisms have been identified in more than 20 typical ecosystems, of which six are marine biodiversity. In addition, about 1,300 species are found on the islands. Marine biodiversity and ecosystems have provided tremendous marine resources to the economy. By 2015, the catches of the whole country will reach over 3 million tons; In the first 7 months of 2016, this number has reached over 1.8 million tons.
In terms of minerals, Vietnam sea has about 35 types of minerals with different exploitation scale. Petroleum is the largest resource on the continental shelf of our strategic importance. Vietnam oil and gas industry has reached the milestone of 100 million tons of crude oil in 2011; milestone of 200 million tons of crude oil in 2012. In 2013, crude oil exports reached 300 million tons. In addition, the Vietnamese sea has the potential to burn – the new type of natural resource in the world; The coastal area also contains enormous potential for mineral ores such as titanium, zircon, tin, gold, iron, manganese, gypsum, rare earth …
The potential development of marine tourism, with 125 large and small beaches, sunny year round, fresh air with many beautiful scenery … is ideal conditions for building resorts, resorts, tourism Advanced calendar. Da Nang Beach has been voted for by Forbes magazine is one of the six most attractive beaches on the planet. Vietnam is one of the 12 countries with the most beautiful bays in the world, Ha Long Bay, Nha Trang Bay vietnambeachholiday.net/. In addition, many islands and coastal areas are home to many world heritages, biosphere reserves, national parks, nature reserves; many cultural-historical relics; folk festivals of coastal inhabitants; beliefs, habits related to the sea … With this advantage, Vietnam’s marine tourism annually attracts about 15 million visitors, including 3 million international visitors, reaching an average increase of 13% /year.
Another important advantage is the Vietnamese waters of the South China Sea – one of the busiest international shipping lanes in the world, linking the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The coast is open all the way east, south and southwest so it is very convenient for international trade exchange and marine economic integration. According to the report of the Vietnam Administration of Sea and Islands, the coast of our country has 10 points can build deep seaports and many ports with average total cargo volume reached 50 million tons per year. To date, Vietnam has signed trade maritime agreements with 26 countries. Vietnam has developed 30 seaports with 166 wharves, 350 wharfs with a total length of about 45,000m; construction of 18 coastal economic zones … On the other hand, the large sea area with many islands is also important space for security and defense.
It can be seen that, from now on, the sea island not only provides food for local people, but also special conditions necessary for Vietnam to develop key economic sectors such as fisheries, oil and gas, marine transportation, shipbuilding, tourism … At present, the marine economy and coastal areas play an extremely important role, contributing about 50% of GDP of the country.